An Analysis of 5 Fables Using Structuralism Approach

Cruzat, Charmaine S.                                                                    May 16, 2011

BSE_English                                                                               OP # 7


An Analysis of 5 Fables

Using Structuralism Approach

          A binary opposition is a pair of opposites, thought by the Structuralists to powerfully form and organize human thought and culture. Some are commonsense, such as raw vs cooked; however, much such opposition imply or are used in such a way that privileges one of the terms of the opposition, creating a hierarchy. There is also the thematic structure which includes the theme and the moral lesson in the fable. And lastly, the modified narrative function, is it success or failure?


Fable No.1 The Mongoose and the Brahmin’s Wife (Panchatantra)

          I think the binary opposition deceit here is within the Brahmin’s wife considered to be the evil, and the Mongoose is the good character. In the brief interpretation of the fable, a Mongoose is a pet who has a good heart that help to protect the child of the Brahmin. But, eventually something had happened; the snake (cobra) wants to bite the child. In the midst of the fable, the objective of the Mongoose was to save the child so they had the combat, mongoose succeeded in killing the snake. After that, the Brahmin’s wife arrived , she had a misinterpretation of  what had happened because she saw a blood stained from the mouth of the Mongoose. Without a second thought, she killed the Mongoose not knowing that her child was in good condition. The lesson, “don’t act in haste, think and act.” The problem was solved between the snake and the mongoose but too much promptness of the Brahmin’s wife leads to death of the Mongoose.


Fable #2 the Little Mice and The Big Elephant (Panchatantra)

          The title itself indicates that there is a binary opposition lies here. We all know that big elephants are stronger than little mice. Big means large while little is small. Precisely there are merely differences between the two. “A Friend in need is a friend indeed”, in fact the principal subject are the mice and elephant. Considerably, the big elephant must protect the mice when suffering from chaos, metaphorically speaking, vice versa happened. The little mice help and save the group of big elephant trapped in huge strong nets. The ethical message seeks us that, “sometimes a weak looking person may prove stronger than others”. Simply, we cannot judge other people in their small image because there is that saying small is terrible. The fable reach the objective.


Fable #3 The Brahmin’s Dream (Panchatantra)

          I suppose the binary opposition used here is the Brahmin by the name of Swabhavakripna and his dream. It is within himself (appearance) and imagination (will not happen). The thematic structure was consider that the Brahmin was all alone and had no friends and relatives. He was known for his miserliness and used to beg for his living. The Brahmin was such an imaginative person; his objective was to have a better life. When he was sleeping he dreamt that the pot of him is overflowing with rice gruel. But he didn’t reach his objective because when he woke up he found that he was dreaming the whole situation. All his dreams got shattered at once. The moral lesson,”one should not build castle in the air”. Don’t dream too high.


Fable #4The Bird with Two Heads (Panchatantra)

          Another interesting story from Panchatantra. The title reflexes the binary composition. How come that the bird have two heads? How about sharing a common stomach? Typically pertains that this fable is such different. In the first place, the first head was selfish because when he found a fruit and taste it he didn’t share to other head because he believes that they have one stomach. It pinches too much to the other head, so when he found a fruit he eats not knowing that it was poisonous. The consequence of this action, both of them lost their lives. The process of actualization didn’t reach the objective because the other head let cruelty take over. The lesson resorts that sharing good things with others is always good. And always remember that if you give don’t count the cost of it.


Fable #5-The Fox and the Crow (Aesop)

          This fable from Aesop shows binary opposition, fooling someone and being fooled. In this story the Fox fooled the Crow by fluttering the crow with his words , the fox tell the crow he has very beautiful voice and ask it to sing , so that the cheese on its mouth will probably fell. The fox and the Crow like other fables, I have read has it’s funny stories. The structure of this fable is there, thematic structure shows the position of characters being fooled and the one fooling around.


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An Analysis of Jose Maria Sison’s “In the Dark Depths” Using Marxism Approach

Cruzat, Charmaine S.                                                          May 16, 2011

BSE_English                                                                               OP # 8


An Analysis of Jose Maria Sison’s “In the Dark Depths”

Using Marxism Approach

Joma Sison was an activist, who was exile in the Netherlands after the Marcos regime ended. He had already been released from prison by the government of Corazón Aquino for the sake of “national reconciliation” and for his role in opposing Marcos. The release of Sison was vehemently protested by the military. It is reported that upon his release, Sison and his followers actively sought to discredit the Aquino government in the European media by speaking out on Aquino’s human rights violations including the Mendiola Massacre, in which members of the military were accused of firing on unarmed peasants in Manila, killing 17 people. Joma’s life make him write a poem,  “in the dark depths”.

This is one of Joma’s poem: In the Dark Depths


Written April 10, 1978

The enemy wants to bury us
In the dark depths of prison
But shining gold is mined
From the dark depths of the earth
And the radiant pearl is dived
From the dark depths of the sea.
We suffer but we endure
And draw up gold and pearl
From depths of character
Formed so long in struggle.


Here Jose Maria Sison explains things they had feel inside the jail. Being an activist, he felt bad about being imprisoned, of a crime he doesn’t commit.

As I analyze the poem, depths deep and at the same time darkness. This darkness is what Joma find inside the prison. “From depths of character/formed so long in struggle” There he had suffered so many hardships and the violence in the prison. The evilness he experienced was unique and he find out what kind of situation those in jail have.

The following lines from the poem,

“From the dark depths of the earth/and the radiant pearl is dived/From the dark depths of the sea.” It is like that Jose Maria Sison find something evil and suffer too much while he dived on the sea of problems.

Using Marxism Approach, I am able to identify and find word meanings lying behind. Marxism let us comment on society’s different situations. Marxist approaches literature provide particularly apt opportunity to note that some emphases in literary criticism ebb and flow, or evolve with the times. We could for example trace some of the roots of Marxist Criticism to 19th century experiments in communal living.



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my self-evaluation in the subject literary criticism

Cruzat, Charmaine S.                                                                                 May 20, 2011

BSE_Eng                                                                                                      O.P.  #9



            When I first encounter the word literary criticism it leads me to ask myself am I ready to undergo such a great responsibility in this subject. Literary criticism involves the reading, interpretation and commentary of specific texts which have been designated as literature. According to Ate Aiza, it is enjoyable to have this subject if you love to read books, watch movies and television and aware of everything. I felt confused and pity because I only have a diminutive background not like you Ma’am whose fund of watching movies and have the collection of classical movies which are really interesting.

One of the major tasks is to read books, plays, poems, fables and apply it using different approaches such as traditional, formalistic, psychological, archetypal and mythological, feminists, structuralism, Marxism, feministic and classical. For me, it’s really hard when you are not in the mood to construct sentences, when you don’t have focus and patience in doing it but if you make this possible you will find that it’s easy and worth it. My much loved story that I read is “The Sign of the Seagulls”. I find it simple through applying the mythological and archetypal approaches. I’ve read it many times, I admire the how it is being construct, the narration of the play, the way the author uses the symbolism, the attitude of the characters are inspiring. For instance, the archetypal woman (old woman) which is the life principle. I remember my mother in reading this play because she loves and protect us from danger. In this, the old woman led Simon to go away and leave the place for he will die if he doesn’t. Then the hard that I stumble upon is the poem of Robert Frost, “For Once Then Something” using Formalistic approach and reading the story of Lilia Pablo-Amansec , “Lover boy” using Psychological approach. In the first place, the poem itself is easy to understand but when I read the content it’s rigid to cope with. The words used are unfamiliar to me with the help of my dictionary and searching the net, I was able to make new ideas and creative words. For the Lover Boy, I find it difficult because when I first look at the photocopy, it’s too long and I can’t get the idea fast, but later on I promise to make my occasional paper presentable to those who will read.

Time-constraint, time is gold. There are three majors in our summer so instead of having a job and vacation we have to attend classes and study for two months. This subject, Literary Criticism should be held not during summer days because it needs a lot of time to think and make the approaches concretely. Sometimes, I don’t submit in exact date because its complex, we have to study in other two majors and then make the approach. There are many times when I ask myself, “will I finish this subject with a good grade?” it takes time to finish an approach when you don’t have the “focus” on it. The best way to make this works good is to put patience and perseverance and love what you do.

What I have learned in this subject is the appreciation of one’s work and value those things. I also have learned a lot from you ma’am, thank you. This would not be possible without your help and of course from God above. Thank you for understanding and accepting late occasional papers. Literary Criticism is very hard but enjoyable and knowledgeable. It is knowledgeable because of different critical approaches that before I happen not to know but now I can make use of it in the future. Enjoyable because of the sacrifices I’ve put on reading stories, poems, fables, plays and many others.

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O.P #6-An Analysis of the story “Love in the Cornhusks “ by Aida Rivera-Ford

Charmaine S. Cruzat May 12, 2011


O.P # 6

An Analysis of the story “Love in the Cornhusks “ by Aida Rivera-Ford

Using Feminism Approach

Woman has a great inidication in our society . Last May 8, 2011 ,we celebrated Mother’s day. I am thankful that I have Inay that has been my guide through my 18 years of living. We cannot live without family, right?Especially without mother am I correct?

As a female character and in my feminist point of view, Aida Rivera-Ford was a woman with a great talent, for she was one of our outstanding writers in English. In her story “Love In The Cornhusks” the title itself indicates the frontier setting, which is the undeveloped sphere of knowledge. Now, I am to criticize and analyze her work through the Feminism Approach.

The woman in Love in the Cornhusks , Tinang who have reach atleast grade school was a woman of consciousness , who always thought of what others will say about her. She is a kind-hearted and loving mother. Through my readings it is assault here the intolerance of being a woman.

She is a mother and as a woman indeed the focus, not Tito nor Inggo but Tinang intelligently. In identifying what woman is her kind , it is clear how señora frankly said “is it not good to be married” for further understanding it is how she looks like worn out not like before that she has many suitors.

Tinang’s kids and new baby in her womb was next to describe as an image of a worn out woman. Marrying a Bagobo is not just easy for he couldn’t afford the needs of the family. Then , in the first attack of the story denotatively speaking ,dog is an animal the other meaning of it (connotation) a follower.

The letter sent to her was a love letter from his past lover, Amado. There she felt that she did not lose his lover, he’s still there waiting for her but now, she had already husband and kids.

The story is somehow related to Antigone , because there are focuses about the strong points of woman . There’s also flashback in the story wherein Tinang remember the past days during her teenage days.

In Marxist Feminism, the personal identity is not seen as separate from cultural identity. Woman can be like men. Woman can do what men are doing, to make it clear woman can overcome situations.

Psychoanalytic, the authors’ work addresses motherhood for she will embrace anything for her kids for their safety, happiness and for good. Kristeva quoted, “The succinct observations that a mother is a continuous separation the division of the very flesh”. The experience of giving birth paradoxically wounds but increases meaning women were suffering pain for the deliberation of birth hence they are happy, they have given birth to another life form.

The story is easy to understand because it uses simple words. Its style is average. Love in the Cornhusks was related to some instances and hardships in life. Feminism continuously flourishes its many forms and it will continue to offer society in literary studies a fruitful and exciting set of intellectual problems. Most feminist do not want to abolish male values instead they wish to do away with such gender type categories altogether.

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